Westminster Theological Journal Vol 74 No 2

CONTENTS
HISTORICAL AND THEOLOGICAL STUDIES
Machen’s Lost Work on the Presbyterian Conflict: Part I: The  Historical  Evidence
JAMES W. SCOTT    217

An Examination of Homotimia in St. Basil the Great’s On the Holy Spirit, and Contemporary Implications
John L. W. James 257

Ambrosiaster on Justification by Faith Alone in His Commentaries on the Pauline Epistles
DONGSUN CHO    277

The Disregarded Doctrine of the Atonement in the
Exposition ofHebrews by John Oecolampadius (1482-1531)
JEFF FISHER    29l

Guy de Bres and the Apocrypha
WES BREDENHOF    305

Christianity  and Evidentialism: Van Til and Locke on Facts and Evidence
NATHAN D. SHANNON     323

Use Your Allusion: How Reformed Sacramental Theology
Makes Sense of Sacramental Language in John 3 and 6
EuGENE R. ScHLESINGER      355

Scott R. Swain, Trinity, Revelation, and Reading: A Theological Introduction to the Bible and its Interpretation
VERN  S. POYTHRESS     455

Dan D. Crawford,  A Thirst for Souls:
The Life of Evangelist Percy B. Crawford (1902-1960)
A. DONALD MACLEOD     456

John MacKay Metzger, The Hand and the Road: The Life and Times of John A. MacKay
A. DONALD MACLEOD         459

James  Davison Hunter, To Change the World: The Irony, Tragedy and
Possibility of Christianity in the Late Modern World
YANNICK lMBERT            462

Paul C. Gutjahr,  Charles Hodge: Guardian of American Orthodoxy
JERRY R. ROBBINS         465

Roger Gryson, ed., Tyconii Afri Expositio Apocalypseos
FRANCIS X. GUMERLOCK     467

Philip Ryken and Michael LeFebvre,  Our Triune God: Living in the Love of the Three-in-One
RYAN  M. McGRAw   471

SHORT  NOTICES
Timothy George, ed., Evangelicals and Nicene Faith:
Reclaiming the Apostolic Witness     475

Ole Peter Grell, Brethren in Christ:
A Calvinist Network in Riformation Europe    475

Nathan  MacDonald, Mark W. Elliott, and  Grant  Macaskill, eds.,
Genesis and Christian Theology         476

James  P. Ware, ed., Synopsis of the Pauline Letters in Greek and English    477

ANNUAL INDEX

The Christian Century Vol 129 No 25

6    Letters: Scholars and laborers

7    Demographic Turmoil:
The Editors: The shadow  of race

8    CenturyMarks
Christmas lament, etc.

10    Christmas unvarnished
Peter W. Marty: A savior  for a troubled world

11    New life without parole
Frank G. Honeycutt: Ministry behind bars

20    The CENTURY recommends
A special Christmas review of noteworthy books, music and film

28    Introverts Unite
Martin B. Copenhaver: An underappreciated personality type

32    Ministry in the 21st Century
An interview with Dennis Sanders

NEWS
14     Fall of a warrior;
Cokesbury closes its stores as book buyers go online

38    Books
Jerome P. Baggett: The God Problem, by Robert Wuthnow
Edward J. Blum: The Long Walk to Freedom, edited by
Devon W. Carbado and Donald Weise
Barry Harvey: The Collected Sermons of Dietrich Bonhoeffer,
edited by Isabel Best

43     Media
Beth Felker Jones: Emerging as adults

47    Art
Lois Huey-Heck: Come Holy Spirit, by Tatiana Nikolova­ Houston

3     Editor’s Desk
John M. Buchanan: Revolutionary words

18, 19  Living by the Word
Thomas  Daniel

37    Faith Matters
Thomas  G. Long: Desperate  prayers

45    American Soundings
Rodney  Clapp: Discomfort food

POETRY
10      Jerry L. Walls: Christmas Eve
12     Angela  Alaimo  O’Donnell: For shadowment: Villanelle for the solstice
Julie L. Moore: When the rain clears
Jerry L. Walls: Kant at the laundromat
Diane  G. Scholl: “Tired of the stench, Haitians burn bodies in plaza”

Review and Expositor Vol 109 No 4

509   First Words … The Book of Daniel
By Kathryn Lopez, Associate  Professor of Old Testament, Campbell
University,  Buies Creek,  North Carolina.

511  A Word From ….
By R. Alan  Culpepper, Dean,  McAfee School of Theology,  Mercer
University, Atlanta,  Georgia.

515 A Word About … Social Justice
By Don  Williford,  Dean of Logsdon School of  Theology and
Seminary,  Hardin-Simmons University, Abilene, Texas.

Thematic Words
Part One:  Approach  With Caution

521 Reading Daniel: Negotiating the Classic Issues of the Book
By Kathryn Lopez, Associate Professor of Old Testament, Campbell
University,  Buies Creek, North Carolina.

531 Resisting Daniel: The Church’s Fear of Bearing Witness to a Difficult Book
By David G. Garber, Associate Professor of Old  Testament and
Hebrew,   McAfee School of Theology, Atlanta,  Georgia

541 Resisting the Power of Empire: The Theme of Resistance in the Book of Daniel
By Barry Jones, Associate Professor of Old Testament and Hebrew,
Campbell University Divinity School, Buies Creek, North Carolina.

557 Political Theology in the Book of Daniel: An Internal Debate By Carol  Newsom, Charles Howard Candler Professor of Old Testament and Director of the Graduate Division of Religion, Candler School of Theology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

569 The Graying of God in Daniel l-7
By Mark  McEntire,  Professor of Religion,  Belmont  University,
Nashville, Tennessee.

Expository Words
583 Daniel 9:24-27 and the Tribulation
By LeAnn  Snow  Flesher,  Academic  Dean  and  Professor  of Old
Testament, American Baptist Seminary of the West at The Graduate
Theological Union,  Berkeley,  California, and  a member  of the
Editorial Board of Review & Expositor

593 A Touch of the Holy: A Sermon on DaniellO:ll-11:1
By Robin Bolen Anderson, Co-Pastor  of Commonwealth Baptist
Church, Alexandria, Virginia.

Words About Recent Books
601    Edited by Robert R. Ellis, Associate Dean and Phillips Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament, Logsdon School of Theology, Hardin­ Simmons University, Abilene, Texas.

Indexes
615 Books Received
Books Reviewed
619 Annual  Index

WORLD Vol 27 No 25

36 Remember those who are in prison
It’s a new day for China’s Communist leadership, but not for the dissidents the government imprisons. They linger in remote jails, beaten, forgotten, and cut off from work, fellowship, friends, and family. WORLD’s 2012 Daniels of the Year are these outspoken Chinese Christians and their long-suffering loved ones

46 Mistakes were made
Despite his election  victory, President  Obama and other officials face hard questions over Benghazi attack

48 Conservative insider
PAUL TELLER directs the Republican Study Committee at a pivotal post-election time

52 Standing with the brethren
A group of Nigerian-Americans organizes to support violence­ plagued Christians in Nigeria

56 Back to the journalist’s lane
Exposing scandal takes perseverance and fortitude, but seeing our corruption leads to seeing God’s grace

English Journal Vol 102 No 2

ENERGIZING ENGLISH
The Power  of Student Resistance
Robert Petrone and Lisa Bullard; Amy Vetter, Jeanie Reynolds, and Colleagues

JuliAnna Avila’s Students Surpass Their Test Scores

Contrastive Analysis and Code-Switching
Michelle D. Devereaux and Rebecca Wheeler

Bonnie S. Sunstein, Rossina Zamora Liu, Arthur  W. Hunsicker, and Deidra F. Baker
Make English Count

 YA Lit and Autism
Rachel F. Van Hart

Rubrics Are Right for Michael Livingston

Margaret  A. Dulaney Gets Some  Props

Christianity Today Vol 56 No 11

24    Incredible Journeys  Mark Galli
Does it matter that people who have had near-heaven experiences are confused theologically, so long as good news is preached?

32     Genocide in Shades of Pink  Marian V. Liautaud
What if every female in America suddenly disappeared? It would feel a lot like Asia, where sex-selective abortion has taken 163 million  girls. How the gospel is slowly turning the tide on the quiet holocaust.

38   Why Mere Christianity Should Have Bombed John G. Stackhouse Jr.
Knowing why it didn’t can help us strengthen our witness today.

42   Three Is the Loveliest Number Michael Reeves
Why Christians might relish talking about God as Trinity.

46   The Relentless Passion of Francis Chan
Interview by Mark Galli
The best-selling author and church planter is not easily satisfied with the church or himself.

52    Created to Make Homes   Ryan Salyards
Because of the Incarnation, we can invest in a place with tender love.

57   Where We Stand
Subverting the Taliban

58    The Village Green
Will Willimon, Halee Gray Scott, and Margaret Feinberg: Does the church need more grace or more holiness?

60   Her.meneutics
Rachel Marie Stone on breast-feeding in church.

61   Past Imperfect
David Neff on hymns that muzzle jesus

Tyndale Bulletin Vol 63 No 2

Could God Have Commanded the Slaughter of the Canaanites?
Stephen N. Williams (Union Theological College, Belfast)
p.161

This article is a slightly revised version of the Tyndale Lecture in Christian Ethics, delivered in 2010. It deals not with the narrowly historical question of the slaughter of the Canaanites, but with the theological question of the possibility of God’s having commanded it. Its argument is that we should not conceive it as a possible divine command, unless we regard it as sorrowfully commanded, a commandment accommodated to conditions of human violence for which humans are responsible.

But Ruth Clung to Her: Textual Constraints on Ambiguity in Ruth 1:14
Scott N. Callaham (Houston, Texas)
p.179

Researchers commonly assert that deliberately ambiguous language in Ruth 3 kindles sexual tension in the depiction of Ruth’s nocturnal encounter with Boaz upon his threshing floor. Perhaps inspired by the literary artistry of the author of Ruth, some recent interpreters have also averred that an erotic undercurrent flows through words they deem intertextually suggestive and allusively ambiguous in Ruth 1:14 as the text reads, ‘but Ruth clung to her’. The present study critically examines this proposal in light of interrelated semantic, syntactic, and intertextual literary evidence.

‘And How Much Do You Owe …? Take Your Bill, Sit Down Quickly, and Write …’ (Luke 16:5-6)
Marulli (Adventist University of France, Collonges-sous-Salève)
p.199

The parable found in Luke 16:1-8a has very often puzzled Christian commentators. The history of its interpretation shows that only a few fathers accepted the challenge to interpret it (mostly allegorically).  Today we are all the more aware of the benefit of understanding the socio-economic backdrop of such an unsettling story.  This essay is an attempt to shed light on the meaning of the parable in the context of debt contracts and rates of interest in first-century Palestine. We shall start by a short description of the pyramidal social structure, the relational function of honour/shame values, and debt reduction dynamics in first-century Roman Palestine. The second part of this article will review some biblical, rabbinical and non-literary papyri sources on the topic of loans and debts in order to shed light on the practice of lending/borrowing money and goods, as well as some practical aspects referred to in the parable of the shrewd steward, such as the possible contractors, the rates of interest, the steward’s share, and the documents used in the context of ancient loans.

Grace Tasted Death for All: Thomas Aquinas on Hebrews 2:9
Lee Gatiss (Peterhouse, Cambridge)
p. 217

This article examines the biblical interpretation of Thomas Aquinas, which has until recently been relatively neglected amongst the many works of this leading medieval theologian. Looking particularly at ‘by the grace of God Christ tasted death for all’ (Hebrews 2:9), a key phrase which throws up several exegetical and theological puzzles, it concludes that Aquinas’s approach to it is a prime example of medieval commentating both at its best and its worst. It shows how his lack of knowledge of Greek led him astray, notes his neglect of textual criticism, and examines his reliance on tradition, especially the Hebrews commentary of Peter Lombard. It places his use of the theological formula ‘sufficient for all, efficacious for the elect alone’ when expounding the words ‘for all’ into historical context, surveying exegetical discussion of the extent of the atonement from Origen to Gottschalk to John Owen. Aquinas’s use of the scholastic ‘division of the text’ methodology to identify a melodic line centring on this verse’s theme of ‘grace’ within both Hebrews and Paul (the assumed author) is uncovered, along with other interpretative tactics and a reflective piety which jar against the presuppositions of modern academic biblical studies.

Heaven Opened: Intertextuality and Meaning in John 1:51
David R. Kirk (Highland Theological College)

p. 237

John 1:51 presents unique interpretational challenges at a theological level. In this study, the allusion to Jacob’s encounter with the LORD at Bethel is the point of departure for an approach which brings together this background with a consideration both of the title Son of Man, and the function of the verse within the gospel. A re-examination of the Bethel narrative casts doubt on the stairway being an image of communication. A Jesus-Jacob nexus arises from a natural reading of John 1:51, and is the interpretational key which unlocks the meaning of the verse. This nexus gives a representative emphasis to the gospel’s first Son of Man saying, and the theological connection to the patriarchal promises leads to a conclusion about the identity of the ‘greater things’ which are promised.

Foreignising Bible Translation: Retaining Foreign Origins when Rendering Scripture
Andy Cheung (King’s Evangelical Divinity School)
p. 257

This article considers the notion of foreignisation with respect to Bible translation, a concept originating with Schleiermacher but re-popularised in the 1990s by Lawrence Venuti. ‘Foreignising translation’ aims to relocate the reader in the world of the source text and attempts to make obvious the alien origins of the original text. It therefore differs from ‘domesticating translation’ which seeks to create a target text with expressions and style more in keeping with target readers’ receptor world conventions. Although foreignisation has long been established as a recognised translation strategy in ‘secular’ translation studies, it is less commonly considered with respect to Bible translation. This article discusses the benefits of foreignising translation in the task of rendering Scripture, albeit within a framework known among translation theorists as ‘skopos theory’, whereby multiple translation styles are permissible, depending on their usage and function in a target community.

Sitting on Two Asses?: Second Thoughts on the Two-Animal Interpretation of Matthew 21:7
Wayne Coppins (University of Georgia)
p. 275

The main thesis of this article is that the ‘two-animal’ interpretation of Matthew 21:7, according to which Matthew speaks of Jesus as sitting on two animals, can be shown to be more probable than the ‘multiple-garments’ interpretation, according to which Jesus is understood to be sitting on multiple garments on a single animal. Prior to my analysis of Matthew 21:7 I discuss the related question of why Matthew’s account of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem involves two animals rather than one, arguing that the ‘history conformed to Scripture interpretation’ is more probable than the ‘Scripture conformed to history’ interpretation. Following it, I advance a more tentative interpretation of the surprising outcome of Matthew’s interaction with Scripture.

The Eschatological Interdependence of Jews and Gentiles in Galatians
John W. Taylor (Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary)
p. 291

Agitators in Galatia insisted that law observance for Gentiles was essential, because the eschatological blessing promised to the heirs of Abraham is only to be found within Israel. But in three key passages (3:13-14; 3:25-26; 4:4-7), which are frequently misunderstood because pronominal shifts are set aside, Paul makes the blessing of Jews and Gentiles in Christ mutually interdependent, in a theological sense. Gentiles are blessed with the blessing of Abraham because Jews are set free by Christ from the curse of the law. Because the Gentiles are blessed, and have become sons of God, Jewish believers receive the Spirit. Thus Gentile inclusion in Christ is not subsidiary to Israel’s eschatological status, and does not require law observance.

Dissertation Summaries: 
My Psalm Has Turned into Weeping: The Dialogical Intertextuality of Allusions to the Psalms in JobWill Kynes (University of Oxford)
p. 317

The ‘bitter parody’ of Psalm 8:5 in Job 7:17-18 has long been recognised but its hermeneutical implications have not been fully explored. The repetition of the phrase ש$מה־אנו (‘What are human beings?’), the common structure of both passages, and the recurrence of the verb פקד set in a context which reverses its meaning, have led to a nearly unanimous consensus that Job is intentionally twisting the meaning of the psalm from a hymn of praise for God’s watchful care to a complaint against his overbearing attention. Rarely, however, has the question which naturally follows been pursued: if the author of Job interacted with Psalm 8 in such a knowing and sophisticated way, what other allusions to the Psalms may likewise make significant contributions to the dialogue between Job, his friends, and God?

Source