196 TEL AZEKAH 113 YEARS AFTER: Preliminary Evaluation of the
Renewed Excavations at the Site
Oded Lipschits, Yuval Gadot, and Manfred Deming
Tel Azekah is located on a prominent ridge in the heart of the Judean Lowlands, Israel. Biblical as well as extrabiblical sources mention Azekah as one of the Judahite border towns of the late eighth to early sixth century B.C.E. that faced the territory of the Philistines. The site was first excavated in 1898-1899 by the British archaeologist F. J. Bliss, assisted by R. A. S. Macalister,
on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund. In the sum mer of 2012, 113 years later, excavations were renewed by the Tel-Aviv and Heidelberg Lautenschlager Azekah expedition. This article presents the research goals of the team, followed by a preliminary report of the finds from the first season, including substantial remains from the Late Bronze Age. Other remains found date to the Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Iron Age II, and Hellenistic and Late Roman periods.
208 DESERT TRACES: Tracking the Nabataeans in Jordan’s Wadi Ramm
Glenn ]. Corbett
In the centuries around the turn of the era, the Nabataeans-a Hellenized Arabic-speaking people of nomadic Arabian origin-maintained a strong stra tegic and commercial presence in the southern desert frontier of the I:Iisma, the area known today as Wadi Ramm. Nearly a century of archaeological work in the region has uncovered Nabataean settlements, shrines, and water systems, but far less attention has been given to the thousands of Hismaic inscriptions and rock drawings left by the local tribesmen who fell under Nabataean rule. This article reviews the varied historical, archaeological, and epigraphic evidence for the Nabataeans in the I:Iisma, before turning to a closer inspection of how and in what ways the lesser known Hismaic carvings inform our understanding of Nabataean influence in the region. I then assess what these apparent cultural similarities reveal about the pluralistic nature of Nabataean society.
220 THE QARQUR CHALLENGE: The Bronze Age and Earlier
Rudolph H. Dornemann
In the September issue of NEA, a brief summary was presented of the Iron Age through early Mam luk remains excavated by the American Schools of Oriental Research Expedition at Tell Qarqur in the Orontes Valley of Syria. This article deals with the earlier range of materials encountered by the expedition, covering the Bronze Age to the Neo lithic. Important materials of Early Bronze IV and Middle Bronze II are being exposed, and so far only scanty but important remains of critical peri ods such as Middle Bronze I and Late Bronze II. It has become obvious that the Early Bronze Age was one of the major and most impressive periods of occupation on the site. The Early Bronze Age occupation needs to be seen in its regional con text, and a good collection of samples, particularly paleobotanical and paleozoological, allow com p risons of cultural developments and changes to be, made through time.
232 JEZREEL REVEALED IN LASER SCANS:
A Preliminary Report of the 2012 Survey Season
Jennie Ebeling, Norma Franklin, and Ian Cipin
In June 2012, the Jezreel Expedition team conducted a landscape survey of 3 km² of greater Jezreel to the west, north, and east of Tel Jezreel in Israel’s Jezreel Valley. In this preliminary report, we review the results of previous
excavations and surveys at the site, briefly present the types of features we documented on the landscape, and discuss our plans for future excavation seasons. We also describe the results of an airborne LiDAR laser scan we commissioned in February 2012-the first time this technique has been used by an archaeological project in Israel-and the historical background of an uncultivated area near ‘Ein Jezreel that will be a focus of future excavations.
TAL-E KHANDAGH (“MOATED MOUND”):
A Military Structure in Ancient Fars
The ancient province of Pars in southern Iran was the home of a number of capital cities over several dynasties. The present article introduces archaeological monuments known as tal-e khandaghs, so named because of the pres: ence of a deep moat that invariably surrounds a substantial rampart. The tal-e khandagh at Sar Mashhad, which Trümpelmann interpreted as a tower of silence, is the earliest of these structures. In a survey carried out in 2007 between Bishapur, Borazjan, and Firouzabad, the author identified and studied a number of similar structures and came to the conclusion that they probably functioned as defensive military installations
Tanak: A Theological and Critical Introduction to the Jewish Bible
The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible
Benjamin G. Wright III
Freeing the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Adventures of an Archaeology Outsider Jason Zurawski