Christian Scholar’s Review 43 No. 4 Summer 2014

Gender Differences at Christian and Secular Colleges

Radical Orthodox Economics

Determining the Truth of Abuse  in Mission Communities: A Rejoinder and New Agenda

Response to Evinger and Darr’s”Determining  the Truth of Abuse in Mission Communities”

393    TRISHA POSEY, Crossing Boundaries: Christian Higher Education in Africa
405    JOHN LUNN, Money: The Unauthorized Biography

411    DAVID  BENTLEY HART, The Experience of God: Being, Consciousness,  Bliss
Reviewed by Bryan C. Hollon
414    NICK  WATSON AND ANDREW  PARKER,  EDS.,  Sports and Christianity: Historical and Con­temporary Perspectives
Reviewed by Brian R. Bolt
416    ROBERT  TRACY  McKENZIE, The First Thanksgiving: What the Real Story Tells Us about Loving God and Learning from History
Reviewed by Richard W. Pointer
418    NICHOLAS WOLTERSTORFF, The Mighty and the Almighty: An Essay in Political Theology
Reviewed by Alexander Jech
421    ROBBIE   F. CASTLEMAN,  Story-Shaped Worship: Following Patterns from the Bible and History
Reviewed by Andrew M. McCoy

Biblical Archaeology Review Vol. 40, No. 2 – March/April 2014

6 FIRST PERSON: Oded’s Other Ossuary



Archaeology on the Opera Stage

Severed Hands: Trophies of War in New Kingdom Egypt Indiana Jones: Fashion Icon

Psalm Book Sold for Record Price at Sotheby’s

Aviram Fellowship to Bring Israeli Scholars to U.S. Conferences $5,000 Prize for “Accessible” Archaeology Article; BAR Articles Excluded
13 How Many?; The Bible in the News

16 Milestones; What Is It?

18 Milestones; In History

20 In Their Own Words

22 Exhibit Watch

24 Cartoon Caption Contest

26 ARCHAEOLOGICAL VIEWS – The Chasm Between the Media and Biblical ArchaeologicalScholarship by Eric M. Meyers

28 BIBLICAL VIEWS – Text Archaeology:The Finding of Lightfoot’s Lost Manuscripts by Ben Witherington III





30 Where Is Mount Sinai? By Hershel Shanks

[Numerous candidates for Mt. Sinai were debated at a recent international colloquium of scholars in Israel, focusing especially on Har Karkom in Israel’s Negev desert and-surprisingly-on a Midianite site in Saudi Arabia. No one defended the traditional site in the southern Sinai Peninsula.]

42 Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible By Lawrence Mykytiuk

[How many people mentioned in the Hebrew Bible have been confirmed archaeologically? The surprising number is 50-from Israelite kings to Mesopotamian monarchs, and some lesser figures as well.]

52 Modi’in: Hometown of the Maccabees by Shlomit Weksler-Bdolah and Alexander Onn

[Modi’in is fan1ous as the hometown of the Maccabees, who successfully led a Jewish revolt when the Hellenistic king Antiochus N Epiphanes banned circumcision and Sabbath observance and desecrated the Temple. Have excavations within the modern Israeli city of Modi’in uncovered the Jewish village that the Maccabees called home?]

60 With & Without Straw: How Israelite Slaves Made Bricks by Robert Littman, Marta Lorenzon and Jay Silverstein

[Was it possible for Israelite slaves to meet their mudbrick quota after Pharaoh stopped providing the straw and they were forced to gather it on their own? Modern mudbrick-making at Tell Timai in the Nile
Delta sheds new light on the Biblical account. Using ancient techniques, archaeologists manufactured mudbricks and used them to conserve ancient mudbrick walls.]

Biblical Archaeology Review Vol. 40, No. 1 Winter 2013

6       First Person: Why Did Judas Identify Jesus With a Kiss?

8       Queries&Comments

12     STRATA
BAR Accused of Publishing “Defamatory” Ad

David Ussishkin Receives 2014 Percia Schimmel Award

Stolen Stele “:Jesus’ Wife” Update
13     How Many?

13     The Bible in the News

14     Milestones

14     What Is It?

16     In History

18     In Their Own Words

20     Exhibit Watch

22     Cartoon Caption Contest

24     BIBLICAL VIEWS: Sacred Meat by Laura Nasrallah

Biblical Archaeology Through a Victorian Lens by Kevin McGeough
28     Digs 2014: Layers of Meaning
by Noah Wiener

(As an archaeological field season progresses, volunteers transition from heavy labor to meticulous analysis in ancient occupation layers. Learn how archaeologists and volunteers at Tel Kabri on Israel’s northern Mediterranean coast adapt their field methodologies to meet the specific needs of their site. And explore excavation opportunities in 2014 with our annual dig guide.)

36    Buy Low, Sell High: The Marketplace at Ashkelon by Daniel M. Master and Lawrence E. Stager

(Ashkelon was a powerful Philistine city on the Mediterranean coast in the Iron Age. Its merchants crossed the known world buying and selling. Its marketplace reveals the workings of both the local and international economy before Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the city in 604 B.C.E.
A treasure-trove of artifacts, including imports from Egypt and Greece, enable us to reconstruct the daily lives of both merchants and residents.)

48      Cult Prostitution in Ancient Israel?
by Edward Lipinski

(According to popular belief, cult prostitution was common throughout the ancient world, particularly associated with the fertility rites of the Canaanites and Phoenicians. While some scholars argue that temple prostitution was practiced in ancient Israel, too, perhaps linked with the goddess Asherah,
in fact, neither the Bible nor archaeology provides any clear evidence that
Israelite religion incorporated the sexual rites of Canaanite goddesses.)

57      The Interchange Between Bible & Archaeology
by Nadav Na’aman

(The Bible and archaeology must be studied separately and independently, but in the end, the evidence must be combined and interpreted together. A study of what the Bible says about King David’s palace and the mysterious Millo demonstrates that Eilat Mazm’ has indeed found David’s palace sitting atop
the unusual structure that can now be understood as the Millo.)


Biblical Archaeological Review Vol. 39 No. 6

6 FIRST PERSON The Sun God in the Synagogue

Who’s Right? You Decide
The1,700th Anniversary of the Edict of Milan
Pentagrams in Judea
“Condemned to the Mines” Wins Best BAR Article
Apologies to the Israel Exploration Society (and Our Readers)
Three Cheers for
Zealot Author

22 BIBLICAL VIEWS Who Did Cain Marry? Mary Joan Winn Leith

Biblical Archaeology in the 21st Century Ann E. Killebrew

30 The Emperor’s New Church on Main Street, Jerusalem
Oren Gutfeld
The Cardo was Jerusalem’s major north-south thoroughfare, as we know from the famous sixth-century Madaba map mosaic in Jordan. But was
it fully built in the Roman period or only in the Byzantine period? The magnificent Nea Church that sat at its southern end may provide the answer.

44 An Ending and a Beginning: Why We’re Leaving Oeiyafa and Going to Lachish
Yosef Garfinkel, Michael Hasel and Martin Klingbeil
Seven seasons of excavations at the fortified site of Khirbet Qeiyafa have redefined the debate over Judah’s early history. Monumental discoveries from the 2013 season provide new evidence of an extensive civil administration during the time of King David. To continue investigating tenth-century Judah, the Qeiyafa archaeologists are heading to Lachish.

52 Why Perga? Paul’s Perilous Passage Through Pisidia
Mark R. Fairchild
Paul’s first missionary journey took him from Cyprus into the heart of Anatolia. Why did Paul and Barnabas choose the treacherous path through Perga to Pisidian Antioch? Archaeological evidence for the likely presence of Jewish communities on the way suggests the reason why.

60 What’s Critical About a Critical Edition of the Bible?
David Marcus and James A. Sanders
Sacrilegious as it may sound, errors and textual problems abound in all ancient copies of a text revered as inspired by the word of God. How do scholars, past and present, strive to preserve the most reliable text of the Hebrew Bible?

Near Eastern Archaeology Vol. 76 No. 3

132 Archaeology and Community in Jordan and Greater Syria: Traditional Patterns and New Directions
Bert de Vries
From its inception, archaeology was perceived as the domain of expert practitioners of the scientific method. The history of disjuncture between archaeological site research and local community development springs from the myths of Western scientific superior knowledge. The archaeologist-scientist-expert came armed with scientific method to excavate samples and take his reports back to Europe/America for fellow scholars. The early stereotype of the negative relationship between archaeology and community was passed on from the colonial period to the era of nationalization. The new national antiquities authorities inherited the disconnection between archaeology and local communities as the status quo. Though treated in a global context, this paper focuses on the history of this stereotype in the Levant, but gives an optimistic view of the present and future trend towards greater inclusion, using the Umm el-Jimal Project as a case in point

142 through the Azraq Community Archaeology Project
Alison Damick and Ahmad Lash
The Community Archaeology in Azraq Program (ACAP) seeks to better understand different ways of knowing the past through its work with community members and archaeological projects in Azraq, Jordan. This article explores how the activities and themes of ACAP are useful for thinking about hte broader meaning of community archaeology in Southwest Asia. Specific themes explored include visibility, accessibility, fragility, and narrative.

152 Practice and Local Communities in Southeastern Turkey
Melissa Rosenzweig and Laurent Dissard
Archaeologists often come across human burials during excavations. Less often, however, do human burials come across archaeological excavations. This happened though, at a site in southeastern Turkey a few years ago. When a funeral procession interrupted operations on the mound of Ziyaret Tepe, archaeologists confronted the dilemma of maintaining an excavation site as a scientific space in real-world contexts that are anything but sterile (void of contemporary meaning) or controlled (void of competing claims). The funeral event exposed the salience of the mound as both a sacred and scientific landmark, and brought to the fore numerous historical, political and cultural factors that rarely receive acknowledgement in the field or in publication. We outline these various influences on archaeological practice at Ziyaret Tepe, and use this unexpected funeral to advocate for a community archaeoly that broadens the value of excavation by respecting a site’s valence as something other than a scientific space.

159 Tomato Season in the Ghor es-Safi: A Lesson in Community Archaeology
Morag M. Kersel and Meredith S. Chesson
From January to March of 2011 the Follow the Pots project embarked on a field project at the Early Bronze Age site of Fifa on the Dead Sea Plain in Jordan. Fieldwork embodied a two-part approach to recording the landscape: archaeological and ethnographic. We had no problem at all carrying out the archaeological ground truthing and mapping of the looted cemetery at Fifa – producing detailed maps and successfully testing a theory about the uses of Google Earth in monitoring archaeological site looting. As a second prong of this project we sought input from interested communities, those who may be directly or indirectly associated with the looting of the area. We were unsuccessful at engaging with local communities – they were all busy harvesting tomatoes, something we had not factored into our “collaboration.” Our take-home message from this project is that community engagement is situational, context-dependent, and a negotiated process between equal partners.

166 Fitting In: Archaeology and Community in Athienou, Cyprus
Derek B. Counts, Elisabetta Cova, P. Nick Kardulias, and Michael K. Toumazou
To what extent do archaeologists distance themselves from the modern people in whose communi­ties they reside while they study the region’s past in­ habitants? While many projects live and work rather anonymously in communities during field projects, the Athienou Archaeological Project (AAP) has cul­tivated and benefited from a remarkable, mutually supportive relationship with the town of Athienou, Cyprus. This article highlights four points of com­ munity engagement that both govern and structure our relationship with the town: administrative, eco­nomic, social, and cultural. Through these points of exchange, AAP has become well integrated with the local community. Through the town’s support, we have forged a unique model of archaeology and community that positions the project through our scientific exploration of the region’s past as an active agent in illuminating, displaying, and preserving Athienou’s rich cultural heritage.

178 Joint Custody: An Archaeological Park at Neolithic Ghwair I, Jordan
Alan H. Simmons and Mohammad Najjar
Archaeological parks have enjoyed considerable success in both presenting excavation results to the public and, often, in benefiting local communities. While many such parks focus on large and visually impressive sites, smaller sites also can benefit from this approach to archaeological presentation. Here, we present the results of a modest park at the Pre­Pottery Neolithic site of Ghwair I in the remote Wadi Faynan of southern Jordan. The park was constructed after several excavation seasons, and consists primarily of a simple series of trails and signage, accompanied by a brochure in both Arabic and English. This article addresses how Ghwair I fits into broader ecotourism of the Wadi Faynan area and examines some of the pragmatic issues that were faced, including funding and maintenance.

186 The “Jordanian” Roman Complex: Reinventing Urban Landscape to Accommodate Globalization
Shatha Abu-Khafajah and Rama Al Rabady
The central urban landscape of Amman, including the archaeological sites of the Roman Theatre, Odeon and Forum, has played an essential cultural, political, social, and economic role in local identity and memory since the establishment of the Emirate of Transjordan in 1921. This research is an ethnographic study of this urban landscape. It combines local people’s responses to recent governmental interventions to develop the downtown area around the Roman Complex. We document how the Roman Complex “grew” as a feature of a modern Jordanian landscape, not just a reminder of the Roman imperial past. The study investigates conflicting perspectives that have arisen between local community members and recent development proj­ects. In these projects local people’s memories, feelings, knowledge, and activities related to the Roman Complex are sacrificed in order to present an image of Amman that can be perceived globally.

Biblical Archaeology Review Sept/Oct Vol 39 No 5

30 A World Below: The Caves of Maresha
lan Stern
Maresha exists on two levels-one a typical Hellenistic town; the other a subterranean  metropolis of caves that served many of the city’s everyday needs-columbaria for raising doves, cisterns for water, baths perhaps for ritual immersion, animal stables, domestic textile factories and just plain storage. This elaborate manmade underworld  supported  a multi-ethnic community of Nabateans, Edomites, Phoenicians and Judeans.

41  Portraits of Ancient Israelite Kings?
lrit Ziffer
Has archaeology uncovered visual portraits of two Israelite kings? One contender is on the famous Black Obelisk from Nimrud, but scholars differ about the identification. Another more recent candidate is an image from a wall at Kuntillet jrud, a remote site in the Sinai desert. As author Irit Ziffer explains, the answer to this one may depend on an understanding of ancient artistic conventions.

52 Will King Hezekiah Be Dislodged from His Tunnel?
For more than a hundred years, an extraordinary water tunnel in Jerusalem has been attributed to King Hezekiah, who dug it to protect the city’s water supply during the Assyrian siege of 701 B.C.E. Hence its name, Hezekiah’s Tunnel. However, recent scholarly publications now argue
that the tunnel was not built by Hezekiah but by his predecessor or his

62 Was Rahab Really a Harlot?
Anthony J. Frendo
Rahab was the heroine who assisted two Israelite spies to escape out the window and down the wall of Jericho, according to the Book of Joshua. But was she a prostitute or an innkeeper? And did she live on the city wall or in it? Archaeology may provide the answer at least to the latter question.

Near Eastern Archaeology Vol 76 Issue 2 2013

66    The Renewed Razor Excavations      Amnon  Ben-Tor

68 Hazor in the Early Bronze Age
Sharon Zuckerman

73 Tel Razor: A Key Site of the Intermediate Bronze Age
Shlomit Bechar

76 The Favissa of the Southern Temple in Area A
Dalit Weinblatt-Krauz

81 The Ceremonial Precinct in the Upper City of Hazor

92 The Podium Complex in Area M
Manuel Cimadevilla

94 Area S: Renewed Excavations in the Lower City of Hazor
Sharon Zuckerman

98 Hazor: A Cuneiform City in the West Wayne Horowitz

101 Hazor at the Beginning of the Iron Age
Doron Ben-Ami

105 Hazor in the Tenth Century B.C.E.
Amnon Ben-Tor

110 Hazor in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries B.C.E.
Debora Sandhaus

118    Conservation and Restoration at Hazor
Orna Cohen

124 References

126 About the Authors

Biblical Archaeology Review Vol 39 No 4 July/August 2013

26     Who Destroyed Canaanite Hazor?
Amnon Ben-Tor
The Book of Joshua says the Israelites defeated the mighty king of Razor and destroyed the city with fire. Years of excavation have revealed the intentional destruction of the once-powerful Canaanite city-“the head
of all those kingdoms”-with a raging inferno that burned at more than 2,350 degrees Fahrenheit. But who did it? According to the excavator, the Israelites are the only feasible candidate.

37    Aegeans in Israel: Minoan Frescoes at Tel Kabri
Eric H. Cline and Assaf Yasur-Landau
Colorful frescoes of bulls, acrobats, griffins and flowers once decorated ancient palaces in Egypt, Turkey, Syria-and Israel. Well known from its home in Crete and Santorini, how and why did this Aegean art style
travel hundreds of miles to the east? Excavations at Tel Kabri in Israel are helping to explain the Aegean connection with the easternmost  parts of the Mediterranean world.

45    Early Israel: An Egalitarian Society
Avraham Faust
Excavated structures, pottery and other household artifacts offer a glimpse of daily life in the Iron Age highlands of Canaan, but no burials or tombs have been found. What do these findings reveal about the ideology of early Iron Age Israelite society?

50    Daphnis and Chloe in the Garden of Eden
Theodore Feder
Considerable attention has been paid to how Biblical religions influenced one another, but did these religions inspire pagan cultures as•well? A charming late-second-century pastoral romance echoes elements of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.

Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR) Vol 39 No 3

30    The Christian Flight to Pella:True or Tale?
Stephen Bourke
According to fourth-century church historian Eusebius, on the eve
of Jerusalem’s destruction  by the Romans in 70 A.D., Jesus’ followers miraculously escaped the city and fled to Pella of the Decapolis in Jordan. After decades of excavation, have archaeologists been able to sift through more than 8,000 years of occupation history to find evidence of these
early Christian refugees?

40    Wooden Beams from Herod’s Temple Mount:Do They Still Exist?
Peretz Reuven
As a result of earthquakes, Al-Aqsa Mosque on Jerusalem’s Temple Mount had to be dismantled and reconstructed in the 1930s and 1940s. Massive Cedar of Lebanon and cypress beams were reused, and others were simply removed. Some of these beams are significantly older than the mosque itself. Were they once part of Herod’s Temple Mount architecture?

49    Cedars of lebanon:Exploring the Roots
Nili liphschitz
David’s Palace and Solomon’s Temple-two of the most famous structures in the Bible-were both built with Cedars of Lebanon (Cedrus libanz) provided by the Phoenician king Hiram of Tyre. Dendroarchaeology, the archaeology of trees and wood, is now able to tell us why Cedrus libani was so treasured and how widely used it was in antiquity.

58    “The Lord Is One”: How Its Meaning Changed
Armin lange and Esther Eshel
A l-inch rectangular gold leaf inscribed with the Shema’ Yisrael (“Hear
0 Israel”) served as a protective amulet for a Jewish baby’s body in the Roman era. The declaration that “The Lord is One” in this incantation reveals that the Israelite deity Yahweh was more than just the sole God of the Jews, he was the only God.

Near Eastern Archaeology No 76 Vol 1

4    DAVID’S JERUSALEM: A Sense of Place
Daniel D. Pioske

Sharp disagreements over the architectural remains and political status of early tenth-century B.C.E.  Jerusa­ lem have overwhelmed a significant point of consensus within  these  wider debates:  the highland site was an inhabited settlement  at the turn of the first millennium B.C.E. The intent  of this investigation is to explore the history of this  early tenth  century B.C.E.  location by focusing on the everyday life that would have occurred within it. Thus, rather than speculating  on Jerusalem’s participation and  role in broader regional develop­ ments during  late Iron I/early Iron IIA transition, my historical  interest  here will be more narrowly concen­ trated on the place of Jerusalem itself: the landscape of the site, its communal spaces, the lifeways it provided its residents. In viewing the location  through this his­ torical lens,  the argument of this  article  will be that an often overlooked  but vital feature of the history  of David’s Jerusalem was its agrarian society and setting.

A Review of Some Hasmonean Coin Types
David  M. Jacobson

The previously accepted wisdom among scholars of ancient Jewish numismatics is that the flower depicted on coins of the Hasmonaean rulers  John Hyrcanus I (135-104 B.C.E.)  and  Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.E.) is invariably a lily. It is now appreciated that most of these coin types are, in fact, based on the Rho­dian rose symbol. This image  was familiar in Judea through the Hasmonaean  period on Rhodian coins and imported wine amphorae  that had circulated there for several decades. The implications of this relationship are discussed against  the background of concurrent political and economic developments.

Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs and Near Eastern Landscapes
Jason Ur

While attempting to document Soviet nuclear capaci­ties, the first generation  of American intelligence satel­ lites also captured  vivid images of archaeological sites and landscapes across the Near East. Since the declas­ sification of these satellite photographs,  archaeologists have eagerly exploited them to investigate early cities, trackways, and irrigation  systems. In many cases, forty years of development and  modernization has dam­ aged or destroyed  these sites and features, leaving the satellite photographs as the best surviving record.  This paper reviews case studies from Syria, Iraq, and Iran.

Onsal Yalpn and H. Goniil Yalpn

The analyses of six metal figurines of the royal tombs from Alacahoyiik show that two of these objects were produced from silver, while the rest were cast in bronze. Beyond  this,  the figurines reveal typological differ­ ences. Three schematic figurines from the tombs A 1 and L provide almost all the features of the idols. Three fur­ ther figurines from tomb H are depicted plastically in a naturalistic  manner. These figurines from Alacahöyük reveal a local style. Similar figurines  are known  from other Early Bronze Age settlements in Anatolia.

50 Taking Mobile Computing to the Field
Samuel B. Fee, David K. Pettegrew, and William R. Caraher

Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible
Leonard Greenspoon

Holy Misogyny: Why the Sex and Gender
Conflicts in the Early Church Still Matter
Justin Glessner

The Yehud Stamp Impressions: A Corpus of Inscribed  Impressions from the Persian and Hellenistic Periods in Judah
Roger S. Nam

The Book of Genesis: Composition, Reception, and Interpretation
David M. Carr