Biblical Archaeology Review Sept/Oct Vol 39 No 5

30 A World Below: The Caves of Maresha
lan Stern
Maresha exists on two levels-one a typical Hellenistic town; the other a subterranean  metropolis of caves that served many of the city’s everyday needs-columbaria for raising doves, cisterns for water, baths perhaps for ritual immersion, animal stables, domestic textile factories and just plain storage. This elaborate manmade underworld  supported  a multi-ethnic community of Nabateans, Edomites, Phoenicians and Judeans.

41  Portraits of Ancient Israelite Kings?
lrit Ziffer
Has archaeology uncovered visual portraits of two Israelite kings? One contender is on the famous Black Obelisk from Nimrud, but scholars differ about the identification. Another more recent candidate is an image from a wall at Kuntillet jrud, a remote site in the Sinai desert. As author Irit Ziffer explains, the answer to this one may depend on an understanding of ancient artistic conventions.

52 Will King Hezekiah Be Dislodged from His Tunnel?
For more than a hundred years, an extraordinary water tunnel in Jerusalem has been attributed to King Hezekiah, who dug it to protect the city’s water supply during the Assyrian siege of 701 B.C.E. Hence its name, Hezekiah’s Tunnel. However, recent scholarly publications now argue
that the tunnel was not built by Hezekiah but by his predecessor or his

62 Was Rahab Really a Harlot?
Anthony J. Frendo
Rahab was the heroine who assisted two Israelite spies to escape out the window and down the wall of Jericho, according to the Book of Joshua. But was she a prostitute or an innkeeper? And did she live on the city wall or in it? Archaeology may provide the answer at least to the latter question.

Near Eastern Archaeology Vol 76 Issue 2 2013

66    The Renewed Razor Excavations      Amnon  Ben-Tor

68 Hazor in the Early Bronze Age
Sharon Zuckerman

73 Tel Razor: A Key Site of the Intermediate Bronze Age
Shlomit Bechar

76 The Favissa of the Southern Temple in Area A
Dalit Weinblatt-Krauz

81 The Ceremonial Precinct in the Upper City of Hazor

92 The Podium Complex in Area M
Manuel Cimadevilla

94 Area S: Renewed Excavations in the Lower City of Hazor
Sharon Zuckerman

98 Hazor: A Cuneiform City in the West Wayne Horowitz

101 Hazor at the Beginning of the Iron Age
Doron Ben-Ami

105 Hazor in the Tenth Century B.C.E.
Amnon Ben-Tor

110 Hazor in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries B.C.E.
Debora Sandhaus

118    Conservation and Restoration at Hazor
Orna Cohen

124 References

126 About the Authors

Biblical Archaeology Review Vol 39 No 4 July/August 2013

26     Who Destroyed Canaanite Hazor?
Amnon Ben-Tor
The Book of Joshua says the Israelites defeated the mighty king of Razor and destroyed the city with fire. Years of excavation have revealed the intentional destruction of the once-powerful Canaanite city-“the head
of all those kingdoms”-with a raging inferno that burned at more than 2,350 degrees Fahrenheit. But who did it? According to the excavator, the Israelites are the only feasible candidate.

37    Aegeans in Israel: Minoan Frescoes at Tel Kabri
Eric H. Cline and Assaf Yasur-Landau
Colorful frescoes of bulls, acrobats, griffins and flowers once decorated ancient palaces in Egypt, Turkey, Syria-and Israel. Well known from its home in Crete and Santorini, how and why did this Aegean art style
travel hundreds of miles to the east? Excavations at Tel Kabri in Israel are helping to explain the Aegean connection with the easternmost  parts of the Mediterranean world.

45    Early Israel: An Egalitarian Society
Avraham Faust
Excavated structures, pottery and other household artifacts offer a glimpse of daily life in the Iron Age highlands of Canaan, but no burials or tombs have been found. What do these findings reveal about the ideology of early Iron Age Israelite society?

50    Daphnis and Chloe in the Garden of Eden
Theodore Feder
Considerable attention has been paid to how Biblical religions influenced one another, but did these religions inspire pagan cultures as•well? A charming late-second-century pastoral romance echoes elements of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.

Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR) Vol 39 No 3

30    The Christian Flight to Pella:True or Tale?
Stephen Bourke
According to fourth-century church historian Eusebius, on the eve
of Jerusalem’s destruction  by the Romans in 70 A.D., Jesus’ followers miraculously escaped the city and fled to Pella of the Decapolis in Jordan. After decades of excavation, have archaeologists been able to sift through more than 8,000 years of occupation history to find evidence of these
early Christian refugees?

40    Wooden Beams from Herod’s Temple Mount:Do They Still Exist?
Peretz Reuven
As a result of earthquakes, Al-Aqsa Mosque on Jerusalem’s Temple Mount had to be dismantled and reconstructed in the 1930s and 1940s. Massive Cedar of Lebanon and cypress beams were reused, and others were simply removed. Some of these beams are significantly older than the mosque itself. Were they once part of Herod’s Temple Mount architecture?

49    Cedars of lebanon:Exploring the Roots
Nili liphschitz
David’s Palace and Solomon’s Temple-two of the most famous structures in the Bible-were both built with Cedars of Lebanon (Cedrus libanz) provided by the Phoenician king Hiram of Tyre. Dendroarchaeology, the archaeology of trees and wood, is now able to tell us why Cedrus libani was so treasured and how widely used it was in antiquity.

58    “The Lord Is One”: How Its Meaning Changed
Armin lange and Esther Eshel
A l-inch rectangular gold leaf inscribed with the Shema’ Yisrael (“Hear
0 Israel”) served as a protective amulet for a Jewish baby’s body in the Roman era. The declaration that “The Lord is One” in this incantation reveals that the Israelite deity Yahweh was more than just the sole God of the Jews, he was the only God.

Near Eastern Archaeology No 76 Vol 1

4    DAVID’S JERUSALEM: A Sense of Place
Daniel D. Pioske

Sharp disagreements over the architectural remains and political status of early tenth-century B.C.E.  Jerusa­ lem have overwhelmed a significant point of consensus within  these  wider debates:  the highland site was an inhabited settlement  at the turn of the first millennium B.C.E. The intent  of this investigation is to explore the history of this  early tenth  century B.C.E.  location by focusing on the everyday life that would have occurred within it. Thus, rather than speculating  on Jerusalem’s participation and  role in broader regional develop­ ments during  late Iron I/early Iron IIA transition, my historical  interest  here will be more narrowly concen­ trated on the place of Jerusalem itself: the landscape of the site, its communal spaces, the lifeways it provided its residents. In viewing the location  through this his­ torical lens,  the argument of this  article  will be that an often overlooked  but vital feature of the history  of David’s Jerusalem was its agrarian society and setting.

A Review of Some Hasmonean Coin Types
David  M. Jacobson

The previously accepted wisdom among scholars of ancient Jewish numismatics is that the flower depicted on coins of the Hasmonaean rulers  John Hyrcanus I (135-104 B.C.E.)  and  Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.E.) is invariably a lily. It is now appreciated that most of these coin types are, in fact, based on the Rho­dian rose symbol. This image  was familiar in Judea through the Hasmonaean  period on Rhodian coins and imported wine amphorae  that had circulated there for several decades. The implications of this relationship are discussed against  the background of concurrent political and economic developments.

Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs and Near Eastern Landscapes
Jason Ur

While attempting to document Soviet nuclear capaci­ties, the first generation  of American intelligence satel­ lites also captured  vivid images of archaeological sites and landscapes across the Near East. Since the declas­ sification of these satellite photographs,  archaeologists have eagerly exploited them to investigate early cities, trackways, and irrigation  systems. In many cases, forty years of development and  modernization has dam­ aged or destroyed  these sites and features, leaving the satellite photographs as the best surviving record.  This paper reviews case studies from Syria, Iraq, and Iran.

Onsal Yalpn and H. Goniil Yalpn

The analyses of six metal figurines of the royal tombs from Alacahoyiik show that two of these objects were produced from silver, while the rest were cast in bronze. Beyond  this,  the figurines reveal typological differ­ ences. Three schematic figurines from the tombs A 1 and L provide almost all the features of the idols. Three fur­ ther figurines from tomb H are depicted plastically in a naturalistic  manner. These figurines from Alacahöyük reveal a local style. Similar figurines  are known  from other Early Bronze Age settlements in Anatolia.

50 Taking Mobile Computing to the Field
Samuel B. Fee, David K. Pettegrew, and William R. Caraher

Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible
Leonard Greenspoon

Holy Misogyny: Why the Sex and Gender
Conflicts in the Early Church Still Matter
Justin Glessner

The Yehud Stamp Impressions: A Corpus of Inscribed  Impressions from the Persian and Hellenistic Periods in Judah
Roger S. Nam

The Book of Genesis: Composition, Reception, and Interpretation
David M. Carr

Biblical Archaeology Review Vol 39 No 2

What to Do with Unprovenanced Artifacts­ Publish or Perish?

28    BIBLICAL  VIEWS Images of Crucifixion: fresh Evidence
Ben Witherington  Ill

Israelite life Before the Kings Robert  D. Miller

30    Where Is Sodom? The Case for TaU ei-Hammam
Steven Collins
Biblical writers knew their geography quite precisely and realistically.
And we are told clearly in Genesis 13 where Sodom was located. Contrary to a number of modern scholars who locate Sodom near the southern end of the Dead Sea, our author locates it northeast of the Dead Sea,.where he has been excavating the site of Tall el-Hammam for eight years. Whether the story of Sodom’s destruction is literally true or simply a traditional
tale, the geography is real; the Biblical author is referring to an actual site.
Where is it?

42    When Pharaohs Ruled Jerusalem
Peter van der Veen
Spurred by a BAR article, author Peter van der Veen went on a hunt for additional archaeological support of ancient Egypt’s dominance in Jerusalem. Here is what he found. But it included nothing from the time King David captured the city. Was this why David was able to conquer Jemsalem?

49    The Staurogram:Earliest Depiction of Jesus’ Crucifixion
larry W. Hurtado
Cmcifixion was considered shameful in Jesus’ time, so until about the late fourth century Christians refrained from depicting Jesus’ crucifixion-or  so it was thought. A depiction of Jesus’ crucifixion 200 years earlier has been identified in some ancient papyrus codices, consisting of a combination of two overlaid Greek letters.

53    Wet-Sift the Megiddo Dumps!
Hershel Shanks
Wet-sifting-the process of pouring soil through  a sieve while spraying
it with water-has proved its worth repeatedly by allowing the recovery of small finds from excavated soil. Why not try it on the 70-year-old excavation dumps at Megiddo?

Near Eastern Archaeology Vol 75 No 4

196 TEL AZEKAH 113 YEARS AFTER: Preliminary Evaluation of the
Renewed Excavations at the Site
Oded Lipschits, Yuval Gadot,  and Manfred Deming

Tel Azekah is located  on a prominent ridge in the heart of the Judean Lowlands, Israel. Biblical as well as extrabiblical sources mention  Azekah as one of the Judahite border  towns of the late eighth to early sixth century B.C.E. that faced the territory of the Philistines. The site was first excavated in 1898-1899 by the British archaeologist F. J. Bliss, assisted by R. A. S. Macalister,
on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund. In the sum­ mer of 2012, 113 years later, excavations were renewed by the Tel-Aviv and Heidelberg Lautenschlager Azekah expedition.  This article presents the research goals of the team, followed by a preliminary report of the finds from  the first season,  including substantial remains from the Late Bronze Age. Other remains found date to the Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Iron Age II, and Hellenistic and Late Roman periods.

208    DESERT TRACES: Tracking the Nabataeans in Jordan’s Wadi Ramm
Glenn ]. Corbett
In the  centuries around the  turn of the  era,  the Nabataeans-a Hellenized Arabic-speaking people of nomadic Arabian  origin-maintained a strong  stra­ tegic and commercial presence in the southern  desert frontier  of the I:Iisma, the area known today as Wadi Ramm. Nearly a century of archaeological work in the region has uncovered Nabataean settlements, shrines, and water systems, but far less attention  has been given to the thousands of Hismaic  inscriptions and rock drawings left by the local tribesmen  who fell under  Nabataean rule. This article reviews the varied  historical, archaeological, and epigraphic evidence for the Nabataeans in the I:Iisma, before turning to a closer inspection  of how and in what ways the lesser known  Hismaic  carvings  inform our understanding of Nabataean  influence  in the region. I then assess what these apparent  cultural similarities reveal about  the pluralistic nature  of Nabataean society.

220    THE QARQUR CHALLENGE: The Bronze Age and Earlier
Rudolph H. Dornemann
In the September issue of NEA, a brief summary was presented of the Iron Age through early Mam­ luk remains excavated  by the American Schools of Oriental  Research Expedition  at Tell Qarqur in the Orontes Valley of Syria. This article deals with the earlier  range of materials  encountered by the expedition, covering  the Bronze Age to the Neo­ lithic. Important materials of Early Bronze IV and Middle  Bronze  II are being  exposed, and so far only scanty but important remains of critical peri­ ods such as Middle  Bronze I and Late Bronze II. It has become obvious that the Early Bronze Age was one of the major and most impressive periods of occupation on the site. The Early Bronze Age occupation needs to be seen in its regional  con­ text, and a good collection of samples, particularly paleobotanical and paleozoological, allow com­ p risons of cultural developments  and changes to be, made through  time.

A Preliminary Report of the 2012 Survey Season
Jennie Ebeling, Norma Franklin, and Ian Cipin

In June 2012, the Jezreel Expedition  team conducted a landscape survey of 3 km²  of greater  Jezreel to the west, north, and east of Tel Jezreel in Israel’s Jezreel Valley. In this preliminary report, we review the results of previous
exca­vations and surveys at the site, briefly present the types of features we documented  on the landscape, and discuss our plans for future excavation seasons. We also describe the results of an airborne LiDAR laser scan we commissioned in February  2012-the first time this technique  has been used by an archaeological  project in Israel-and the his­torical background of an uncultivated area near ‘Ein Jezreel that will be a focus of future excavations.

A Military Structure  in Ancient Fars
Parsa Ghasemi

The ancient  province  of Pars in southern Iran was the home of a number  of capital cities over several dynasties. The present article introduces  archaeological monuments known as tal-e khandaghs, so named because of the pres:­ ence of a deep moat that invariably surrounds a substantial rampart. The tal-e khandagh at Sar Mashhad, which Trüm­pelmann interpreted  as a tower of silence, is the earliest of these structures. In a survey carried out in 2007 between Bishapur, Borazjan, and Firouzabad, the author identified and studied  a number of similar  structures and came to the conclusion that they probably functioned  as defensive military installations

Tanak: A Theological and Critical Introduction to the Jewish Bible
Joel Kaminsky

The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible
Benjamin G. Wright III

Freeing the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Adventures of an Archaeology Outsider Jason Zurawski

Biblical Archaeology Review Vol 39 No. 1 January/February 2013

Art as Bible Interpretation
STRATA      12
Jewish Captives in the Imperial City
The End of an Era
Ancient Worship in Israel­ Before the Israelites
Site of Samaritan Temple Open to Public
A House Divided
IAA’s New Archaeological Campus Begins to Rise

Biblical Widows-Groveling Grannies or Teaching Tools?
Robin Gallaher Branch

Jerusalem in Her Own Words
Jonathan  J. Price

Samson in the Synagogue               32
Jodi Magness
Carved stones scattered around the site hinted at the presence of an ancient synagogue at Huqoq, but exactly where was it located? The search took a surprising turn when excavators revealed a beautiful woman’s face in the dirt.

Who Was Buried in the Tomb of Pharaoh’s Daughter?                40
For centuries, Jerusalem’s Tomb of Pharaoh’s Daughter has captured the attention of explorers and archaeologists alike. Tradition, Egyptian decorations and a captivating name have ?purred speculation about the original occupant of this First Temple period monument. A Jerusalem archaeologist investigates the question-whose tomb was it?

The Diggers ReturnNoah Wiener                  51
Fieldwork invigorates archaeologists as they experience the thrills of discovery, travel and camaraderie. While some volunteers create lifelong memories in a single season, many others return year after year to dig deeper into the ancient world and their site. Our annual guide to excavations will help you find your dig.

In the Beginning:Religion at the Dawn of CivilizationBen Witherington III     57
Which came first-villages or religion? Until recently, experts thought they knew the answer: Agriculture and human settlement in villages gave rise to religious practices. But now, an astonishing site in southeastern  Turkey may be turning that theory on its head, revealing that religion was already part of the human experience at the dawn of civilization.

Biblical Archaeology Review

Authentic or Forged? What to Do When Experts Disagree

God Save the Queen: The Political Origins of Salvation
Henry  W. Morisada  Rietz

At the Interface of Archaeology and Texts Yonatan Adler

28    The Persisting Uncertainties of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud
Hershel Shanks
“Is it a she or is it a he?” is only one of the tantalizing questions raised by the remarkable finds at this remote site in the Sinai desert. Why was it built? What is it? Why was it abandoned? And why has it taken nearly four decades to publish the final excavation report? One thing is clear, however: Several inscriptions recovered in the excavation mention the Israelite God “Yahweh.”

38    Scribe Links Qumran and Masada
Sidnie White Crawford
In an unprecedented breakthrough,  paleographer Ada Yardeni recently identified the handwriting of a single scribe on more than 50 Dead Sea Scrolls from Qumran and Masada. What can this tell us about the scribal community at Qumran?

44    Is T1 David’s Tomb?
Jeffrey R. Zorn
Nearly a century ago, French archaeologist Raymond Weill excavated what he identified as tombs in Jerusalem’s City of David-perhaps the royal necropolis of the kings of Judah as located in the Bible. Some scholars have since disputed this claim, but a new examination of more recent archaeological evidence suggests that archaeologist Weill might well have been right.

53    From Jewish to Gentile: How the Jesus Movement Became Christianity
Geza Vermes
A small group of observant Jews were the first followers of Jesus. But Christianity evolved into a largely gentile movement over the next century. When were non-Jews first accepted as Jesus’ followers, and how were they distinguished from the original Jewish Christians?

Near Eastern Archaeology Vol 75 No 3 (2012)

132 KARKEMISH ON THE EUPHRATES: Excavating a City’s History
Nicolo Marchetti and co-authors

The new Turkish-Italian excavations  at Karkem­ ish, one of the  most  important urban sites  of the ancient Near East, will add significant evidence to our knowledge of the city’s history and regional context. This article  gives an overview  of previous excava­ tions of the city and the current project, its history, new epigraphic evidence, and the material culture of the urban elite. It also informs about surveying tech­ niques used at Karkemish  and the 3-D scanning of sculptures and inscriptions.

William Foxwell Albright’s Biblical Archaeology
Peter Feinman

The full story of William Foxwell Albright’s introduction to biblical archaeology is not simply an archaeological one.  While  the story of the young child reading  an archaeology book in Chile is part of Albright lore, the other  influences  affecting him during his parents’ mission there are less well known. Similarly, life in Iowa when the Albrights  returned  to America has been  a lacuna in his legacy. This article seeks to fill that gap by examining Methodist Albright’s life within the Catholic context of both Chile and Iowa in the 1890s and early 1900s. As will be seen, the Methodist languag of Catholic condemnation  in these two locations bears a striking resemblance to the condemnations of the Canaanites later expressed in biblical archaeology.

162 THE QARQUR CHALLENGE: Middle Islamic through Iron Age
Rudolph H. Dornemann
The American  Schools of Oriental Research exca­ vations at Tell Qarqur  provide a major challenge for participating archaeologists. Natural and human disruption forces consistent patience to piece together a complicated  puzzle of more than 7,500 years. Col­ lections of Early Bronze IV, Iron Age I, and Iron Age II materials are significant, but good Middle Bronze Age, Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Middle Islamic, and early Mamluk materials have also been excavated.  Promise  of much more has been found, suggesting a sequence from Early Bronze III back to the Neolithic  and hints  of documentation for criti­ cal periods such as Middle Bronze I and Late Bronze II. The expedition works to place Tell Qarqur  in its regional context,  focusing  particularly on paleobo­ tanical and paleozoological materials. Recent efforts in using  geophysical prospection provide  a more complete understanding of the site.  This first of two articles  examines the Islamic  through Iron  I finds from Tell Qarqur.

NEW FIELDWORK AT ABYDOS:The Toronto Votive Zone Project
Mary-Ann Pouls Wegner

In 2011, archaeological  fieldwork was resumed  at the votive zone adjacent to the main temple of Osiris at Ab’ydos. The article focuses on new discoveries at the zone, such  as a monumental structure indicating the state’s involvement in the development  of the zone, and evidence  for the use of a Middle  Kingdom  offer­ ing chapel until more than 1500 years after its erection. The article also highlights  remarkable artifacts  recov­ ered – the remains of a wooden figure of a hawk’s head that likely formed  the aegis of a barque-shrine, and a rare example of a royal wooden  statue that may depict Hatshepsut – and discusses  the ceremonial landscape and its cultural significance.

How Will Declining Religious Literacy
in the United States Affect Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology? Some Thoughts from the Front Lines
Leann Pace

Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece, and Rome
Daniel Pioske

The Dead Sea Scrolls and Contemporary Culture: Proceedings of the International Conference  held at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem (July 6-8, 2008)
Jason Kalman